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Management measures analysis and comparison

Authors:

by S. Saathoff, J. Knüppel, S. Manson & A. Boerema



10c. Templates for evaluation of measures in terms of Natura 2000 aims: Conservation objectives for relevant operational areas based on the Integrated Management Plan Weser (IBP Weser)

Table 44: Natura 2000 objectives with specifications for operational area 1 in the outer Weser estuary and indication of potential measure effects following a simple valuation system (++, +, 0, -, --), template (source: simplified after NLWKN, SUBV 2012)
Operational area 1: Meso-/polyhaline zone in the outer Weser (Weser-km 65 - 85)
Specifications for operational area 1 Effect of measure xyz on conservation objectives Short explanation
positive effects no effect negative effects
Conservation and development of specific estuarine habitats and (tidal) floodplains and their dynamic changes
Conservation and development of typical habitats of operational area 1 (e.g. mudflats, reed, salt marshes, extensively used and salt- influenced grasslands)  in a dimension, spatial distribution and interconnection ensuring long-term appearance of typical species         
Development, enlargement and upgrade of shallow water zones with moderate current climate (e.g. Wurster Arm)        
Development of passable shore structures        
Conservation and development of habitats for viable populations and estuary and (tidal) floodplain specific species as well as species after Annex II Habitats Directive and bird species after Birds Directive
Conservation and development of undisturbed resting and moulting areas for migratory bird populations (high diversity, many individuals) considering all necessary functions        
Conservation of adequate habitat quality and undisturbed resting areas for Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in order to realise a long term stable population        
Conservation of adaption and feeding grounds for Twaite shads (Alosa fallax) and Lampreys, especially during main migration phases        
Development of preferential conditions for settlement of Seagrass, eulittoral and sublittoral mussel beds (Mytilus edulis) and Sabellaria-reefs with associated fauna        
Conservation of typical breeding bird communities and associated habitats (breeding birds of salt marshes, extensively used, salt- influenced grasslands and reeds)        
Conservation of site specific requirements and area percentages of aquatic structures as habitats for typical benthic invertebrate fauna        
Conservation and development of favorable conditions on estuary grassland in order to promote long term establishment of Bulbous Foxtail.        
Preservation and development of the Weser estuary mouth as passable migration and feeding area for Harbors porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)        


Table 45: Natura 2000 objectives with specifications for operational area 2 in the lower Weser estuary and indication of potential measure effects following a simple valuation system (++, +, 0, -, --), template (source: simplified after NLWKN, SUBV 2012)
Operational area 2: Oligohaline zone in the lower Weser (Weser-km 40 - 65)
Specifications for operational area 2 Effect of measure xyz on conservation objectives? Short explanation
positive effect no effect negative effect
Conservation and development of specific estuarine habitats and (tidal) floodplains and their dynamic changes
Development, enlargement and upgrade of shallow water zones with moderate current climate        
Development of passable shore structures        
Conservation and development of typical habitats of operational area 2 (e.g. mudflats, reeds, extensively used and salt-influenced grasslands, tidal floodplains)  in a dimension, spatial distribution and interconnection ensuring long-term appearance of typical species         
Conservation and development of habitats for viable populations and estuary and (tidal) floodplain specific species as well as species after Annex II Habitats Directive and bird species after Birds Directive
Conservation and development of undisturbed resting and moulting areas for migratory bird populations (high diversity, many individuals) considering all necessary functions        
Conservation of typical breeding bird communities and associated habitats (breeding birds of extensively used, salt- influenced grasslands and reeds)        
Preservation and development of nursery ground function for Twaite shad (e.g. preferential water quality for juveniles and larvae)        
Preservation and development of undisturbed resting and moulding areas for Pied avocet        
Conservation and development of well-structured bordering waters and shore areas with wood, typical shore vegetation and reeds as hunting and feeding ground for Pond bat (Myotis dasycneme) (e.g. creek systems on Tegeler Plate, on Einswarder Plate, shallow water zone Kleinensieler Plate….),        
Conservation of site specific requirements and area percentages of aquatic structures as habitats for typical benthic invertebrate fauna        
Conservation and development of favorable conditions on estuary grassland in order to promote long term establishment of Bulbous foxtail        
Conservation of wide, salt-influenced reeds representing habitats for specialized invertebrate fauna (e.g. typical Auchenorrhyncha species)         


Table 46: Natura 2000 objectives with specifications for operational area 3 in the lower Weser estuary and indication of potential measures effects following a simple valuation system (++, +, 0, --, -), template (source: simplified after NLWKN, SUBV 2012)
Operational area 3: Freshwater zone in the lower Weser (Weser km 12 - 32)
Specifications for operational area 3 Effect of measure xyz on conservation objectives Short explanation
positive effect no effect negative effect
Conservation and development of specific estuarine habitats and (tidal) floodplains and their dynamic changes
Development, enlargement and upgrade of shallow water zones with moderate current climate        
Development of passable shore structures        
Conservation and development of typical habitats of operational area 3 (e.g. river flats, reeds and typical shore vegetation not being affected by neophytes, tidal floodplains and extensively used grasslands) in a dimension, spatial distribution and interconnection ensuring long-term appearance of typical species         
Conservation and development of tidal floodplains at the upper tidal border        
Conservation and development of habitats for viable populations and estuary and (tidal) floodplain specific species as well as species after Annex II Habitats Directive and bird species after Birds Directive
Conservation of typical breeding bird communities and associated habitats (breeding birds of grasslands, reeds and tidal floodplains)        
Conservation and development of undisturbed resting and moulting areas for migratory bird populations (high diversity, many individuals) considering all necessary functions        
Conservation and development of well-structured bordering waters and shore areas with wood, typical shore vegetation and reeds as hunting and feeding ground for Pond bat (Myotis dasycneme)        
Preservation and development of spawning ground function for Twaite shad (e.g. by avoiding disturbances during spawning season)        
Conservation and development of spawning ground function for Smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) (e.g. by avoiding disturbances during spawning season)        


Table 47: Natura 2000-objectives with specifications for entire investigation area of the Integrated Management Plan Weser and indication of measure effects following a simple valuation system (++, +, 0, --, -), template (source: simplified after NLWKN, SUBV 2012)

Specifications for entire investigation area of IBP Weser
Effect of measure xyz on conservation objectives?
positive effect no effect negative effect
Conservation and development of specific functions and processes of estuaries and (tidal) floodplains to reach favourable abiotic conditions and typical hydromorphological structures
Conservation and development of favourable
water structures and water bed dynamics
     
Development of evenly distributed and reduced
current energy and tidal parameters
     
Conservation and development of favourable
gradients of specific aspects regarding estuaries
and (tidal) floodplains (e.g. salinity, sediments,
current conditions, tidal range, close-to-nature
zonation of shore vegetation); refers to inner
estuary and to area between estuary and floodplain
within fresh water zone.
     
Improvement of water and sediment quality      
Conservation and development of specific estuarine habitats and (tidal) floodplains and their dynamic changes
Conservation and development of habitats and
communities which strongly depend on the natural
dynamics of morphological processes
(e.g. mudflats, shallow waters, creeks… )
     
Development of balanced area percentages
regarding mudflats, shallow waters, shallow and
deep sublitoral
     
Conservation and development of tidal floodplains
with typical vegetation structures and
biocoenosis and favourable tidal and flooding
dynamics; especially floodplain enlargement
     
Conservation and development of habitats for viable populations and estuary and (tidal) floodplain specific species as well as species of Annex II Habitats Directive and bird species of Birds Directive
Conservation of habitat functions for breeding
and migrant birds especially as feeding grounds
(also for bordering or networked areas)
     
Conservation and development of habitat
requirements for migratory fish stocks and
cyclostomata within present territories and
networked areas
     
Conservation and development of habitat
requirements for autochthon
fish communities with typical age composition
and typical percentage of estuarine species and
diadromous migratory fish species
     
Conservation and development of long-term
viable populations of typical
fish species and cyclostomata
(estuarine and diadromous guilds)
     
Reaching of favourable water quality for
reproduction, larval development and
viability of typical fish communities of different
salinity zones
     
Conservation and development / reestablishment of
passability of the tidal river Weser and its
tributaries for migratory fish and benthic
invertebrates    
     


Table 48: Natura 2000 objectives for operational areas 1 – 6 according to Integrated Management Plan Elbe (AG Elbe , 2012)
Operational area Natura 2000-conservation objective
1 Prevention of further increase and/or reduction of tidal range (energy)
Conservation and development of primarily floodplain/alluvial forest (*91E0)
Conservation and improvement of alluvial meadows of river valleys (6440) and lowland and hay meadows (6510)
Conservation of the primarily Elbe Water Dropwort (Oenanthe conioides) with species specific dynamic, development of further habitats to improve the habitat network
Conservation and development of spawn and growth habitats for asp, ensuring the habitat potential for the twaite shad
Conservation and development of the transition functionality between the Middle Elbe and the Estuary downstream for migratory fish species of Annex II BHD
 
2 Reestablishment of  natural sediment- and tidal-dynamics
Development of alluvial forests and species-rich aggregates of tidal reeds and tall herb communities
Development of a network of step-stone habitats for the Elbe Water Dropwort
Conservation and development of adequate rest-habitats for migratory fish and lamprey species along their route
Conservation of relevant functions for bird protection, esp. in the nature protected areas Westerweiden for roosting goose and Holzhafen for roosting ducks.
Strengthening the NATURA 2000 network, particularly the construction of an ecological valuable bypass to avoid the port of Hamburg.
 
3 Improvement of the hydro morphological habitat conditions of the habitat type Estuaries, if possible conservation and improvement of estuary typical dynamics
Conservation and development of tidal reeds, hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities (6430) and floodplain/alluvial forest (*91E0) esp. on islands.
Conservation, reestablishment and development of meadows with vegetation typical for the Elbe region, like lowland hay meadows (6510) with respect to their avifaunistical function.
Conservation and partly reestablishment of the primarily Elbe Water Dropwort (Oenanthe conioides) populations with typical dynamics, esp. on the island of Neßsand and Hanskalbsand, as well as Hahnöfersand, development of additional habitats for the improvement of the habitat network.
Conservation and reestablishment of the outstanding relevance of the functional zone for the reproduction of the twaite shad.
Conservation, partly reestablishment and development of the brooding function esp. for the species on extensive used meadows, large-scale reeds and grassland-ditch complexes of the marshes and the associated habitats.
Conservation and development of the resting function esp. for Nordic goose and swans, as well as for waders (Limikolen) on the widespread, low disturbed grasslands.
Conservation of the resting occurrence of ducks, gulls and sea swallows
 
4 Improvement of the hydro morphological habitat conditions of the habitat type Estuaries, if possible conservation and improvement of estuary typical dynamics
Conservation and development of tidal reeds, hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities (6430) and floodplain/alluvial forest (*91E0).
Conservation, reestablishment and development of meadows with vegetation typical for the Elbe region, like lowland hay meadows (6510) with respect to their avifaunistical function.
Conservation and partly reestablishment of the primarily Elbe Water Dropwort (Oenanthe conioides) populations with typical dynamics additional to the main occurrence in the functional zones 1 and 3, development of additional habitats for the improvement of the habitat network.
Conservation and reestablishment of the importance of the functional zone 4 for the reproduction of the twaite shad in connection with the functional zone 3.
Conservation, partly reestablishment and development of the brooding function esp. for the species on extensive used meadows, large-scale reeds and grassland-ditch complexes of the marshes and the associated habitats.
Conservation and development of the resting function esp. for Nordic goose and swans, as well as for waders (Limikolen) on the widespread, low disturbed grasslands.
 
5 Improvement of the hydro morphological habitat conditions of the habitat type Estuaries, if possible conservation and improvement of estuary typical dynamics
5 Conservation and development of tidal reeds, hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities (6430) and floodplain/alluvial forest (*91E0).
5 Conservation, reestablishment and development of meadows with vegetation typical for the Elbe region, like lowland hay meadows (6510) with respect to their avifaunistical function.
5 Conservation and partly reestablishment of the primarily Elbe Water Dropwort (Oenanthe conioides) populations with typical dynamics additional to the main occurrence in the functional zones 1 and 3, development of additional habitats for the improvement of the habitat network.
5 Conservation and reestablishment of the importance of the functional zone 4 for the reproduction of the twaite shad in connection with the functional zone 3.
5 Conservation, partly reestablishment and development of the brooding function esp. for the species on extensive used meadows, large-scale reeds and grassland-ditch complexes of the marshes and the associated habitats.
5 Conservation and development of the resting function esp. for Nordic goose and swans, as well as for waders (Limikolen) on the widespread, low disturbed grasslands.
 
6 Conservation of the near-natural hydro morphological habitat conditions of the habitat type Estuaries (11309, if possible conservation and improvement of estuary typical dynamics
6 Conservation and development of broad mudflats and near-natural land-water intersection with tidal-creeks, tidal reeds and hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities (6430), reestablishment of tidal influence in the “Sommerpolder Belum”
6 Conservation, reestablishment and development of meadows with vegetation typical for the Elbe region, like lowland hay meadows (6510) with respect to their avifaunistical function.
6 Conservation of the function as growth habitat for the twaite shad.
6 Stabilizing of the population of gull-billed tern and common tern.
6 Conservation, partly reestablishment and development of the brooding function esp. for the species on extensive used meadows, large-scale reeds and grassland-ditch complexes of the marshes and the associated habitats.
6 Conservation and development of the resting function esp. for Nordic goose and swans, as well as for waders (Limikolen) on the widespread, low disturbed grasslands.


Table 49: Conservation objectives defined for the Zeeschelde (Flanders, Belgium) on the species level
Category Species with extra attention concerning conservation Scientific name
Mammals Pond bat Myotis dasycneme
Beaver Castor fiber
Otter Lutra lutra
Eurasian harvest mouse Micromys minutus
Common Noctule Nyctalus noctula
Nathusius's pipistrelle Pipistrellus nathusii
Daubenton's bat Myotis daubentonii
Harbor seal Phoca vitulina
Eurasian water shrew Neomys fodiens
Amphibians and reptiles Great Crested Newt Triturus cristatus
Natterjack Toad Bufo calamita
Fishes Misgurnus fossilis Misgurnus fossilis
European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis
Allis shad Alosa alosa
Twait Shad Alosa fallax
European eel Anguilla anguilla
European bitterling Cyprinus amarus
Spined loach Cobitis taenia
European bullhead Cottus gobio
Wels catfish Silurus glanis
Trout Salmo trutta
Invertebrates Large White-faced Darter Leucorrhina pectoralis
Vertigo angustior Vertigo angustior
Desmoulin's whorl snail Vertigo moulinsiana
Breeding birds Corn Crake Crex crex
Fish Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla
Bluethroat Luscinia svecica
Western Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis
Eurasian Bittern Botarus stellaris
Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus
Black Kite Milvus migrans
Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus
Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio
Little Egret Ergetta garzetta
Baillon's Crake Porzana pusilla
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucordia
White Stork Ciconia ciconia
Spotted Crake Porzana porzana
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea
Red Kite Milvus milvus
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus
Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Common Tern Sterna hirundo
European Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus
Black Woodpecker Dryocopus mertius
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus
Mute Swan Cygnus olor
Gadwall Anas strepera
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines
Common Redshank Tringa tetanus
Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
Bearded Reedling Panurus biarmicus
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna
Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus
Sand Martin Riparia riparia
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegis
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeta
Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus
Whinchat Saxicola rubetra
Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides
Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago
Common House Martin Delichon urbica
Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos
Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis
Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis
Corn Bunting Miliaria calandra
Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus
Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus
Garganey Anas querquedula
Eurasian Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinusa
Little Grebe Trachybaptus ruficollis
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis
Northern Pintail Anas acuta
European Stonechat Saxicola torquata
Common Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia
Common Pochard Aythya ferina
Migratory and wintering birds (Zeeschelde and Blokkersdijk) Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna 
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticulata
Dunlin Calidris alpine
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficolis
Sanderling Calidris alba
Slender-billed Curlew Numenius tenuirostris
Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus
Little Gull Larus minutus
Little Tern Sterna albifrons
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis
European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria
Greylag Goose Anser anser
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus
Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis
Common Merganser Mergus merganser
Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca
Great Egret Egretta alba
Great Northern Loon Gavia immer
Ruff Philomachus pugnax
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius
Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus
Little Egret Egretta garzetta
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus
Pied Avocet recurvirostra avocetta
Mute Swan Cygnus olor
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus
Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons
Gadwall Anas strepera
Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator
Smew Mergus albellus   
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
Black-throated Loon Gavia arctica
Northern Pintail Anas acuta
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
Eurasian Bittern Botarus stellaris
Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena
Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficolis
Red-throated Loon Gavia stellate
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica
Brant Goose Branta bernica 
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata
Eurasian Wigeon Anas Penelope
Ruddy Turnstone Arenarea interpres
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus
Common Gull Larus canus
Common Pochard Aythya farina
Bean Goose Anser fabalis rossicus
Greater Scaup Aythya marila   
Common Redshank Tringa tetanus
Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
Whooper Swan Cygnus Cygnus
Eurasian Teal Anas crecca
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata
Fish Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatorola
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus
Black Tern Chlidonias niger
Common Scoter Melanitta nigra


Table 50: Habitat and species management objectives and management delivery for 2012-2014 (HMS 2011a)
Objective Action
HSM1. Habitat management: To identify and deliver habitat management to meet the conservation objectives Humber managed realignment projects (Link to ongoing management: Flood defence & Development and maintenance)
HSM1.1: Share best practice on realignment sites.
HSM1.2: Support and encourage, where possible, a long term rolling programme of realignment site delivery.
HSM1.3: Facilitate dialogue between
organisations undertaking realignment to develop larger more cost effective realignment sites
HSM1.4: To agree the process to
designate realignment sites and include them in the Humber designations
HSM1.5: To disseminate progress on
the realignment projects to the wider estuary community
HSM1.6: To use information gained from
HMS recreational disturbance study to design public access to realignment sites
Stewardship
HSM1.7: Natural England works with landowners and farmers to encourage and deliver HLS targets. However, the Humber habitats and species are not included in the target statement for the area.  Lobby for Higher Level Stewardship targeting for the management of the features connected with the Humber Estuary EMS and important associated features such as high tide roosting and feeding areas and wintering birds e.g. wet grasslands/grazing marsh, winter stubbles. Work with other sectors e.g. archaeology, to ensure targets are multi- objective.
Intertidal and land management
HSM1.8: Organisations involved in grazing projects to communicate progress to Humber Estuary community through the HMS to share best practice and to consider a whole estuary approach.
HSM1.9: Establish a HERAG & HAG sub-group and scope options for a project to summarise historic and current intertidal and HTR management to identify management required for habitats to be or remain in favourable condition e.g. equipment share, flying flock, composting scheme.
HSM1.10: Identify funding sources to support land management projects.
HSM1.11: Identify mechanisms to make
management for biodiversity economically viable and explore options such as biodiversity offsetting
HSM1.12: Encourage cooperative
working for land management to provide opportunities for Humber designated species e.g. Breeding Little Tern
HSM1.13: Identify approaches on other estuaries (worldwide) to identify innovative solutions
HSM1.14: Awareness raising and engagement with landowners, farmers and associated organisations e.g. FWAG
HSM1.15: Promote exemplar sites and share best practice e.g. Alkborough
Invasive species
HSM1.16: Monitor and put appropriate management in place for invasive species e.g. Himalayan balsam, Japanese Knotweed, Japanese mitten crab
HMS2. SPA birds: To identify and deliver management for SPA birds to meet the conservation objectives including the management of high tide roosting and feeding areas Understanding bird population
fluctuations to identify management actions

HSM2.1: To determine actions required to understand bird fluctuations in order to put management measures in place. To engage and consult with HERAG and HAG as part of the process.
HSM2.2: Study to be undertaken tounderstand national changes in bird numbers.
High tide roosts
HSM2.3: Update to Natural England Report on high tide roosts
HSM2.4: Identify important sites and key areas for HTR enhancement and creation.
HSM2.5: Identify critical areas for SPA functioning which require designation such as managed realignment sites and high tide roosts.
HSM 2.6 To develop a mitigation strategy for the creation and management of high tide roosting and feeding areas in the South Humber Gateway area
HSM3. Sub-tidal: To identify and deliver management for the sub-tidal to meet the conservation objectives HSM 3.1: NE sub-tidal report to be completed and evaluated to understand habitat resource and importance, gaps in information and threats and opportunities
HSM 3.2: Draft possible objectives and identify mechanisms to take actions
forward
HSM4. Grey seals: To identify and delivery management for the grey seals to meet the requirements of the conservation objectives HSM4.1: Support continued wardening of the seal population during the seal season
HSM4.2: Gather evidence on
disturbance to the grey seal population, especially on the outer bank
HSM4.3: Develop appropriate
management measures on access to the grey seal population, particularly relating to photographers
HSM5. Lamprey: To identify and delivery management for the river and sea lamprey to meet the requirements of the conservation objectives HSM5.1: To obtain funding to undertake
monitoring of lamprey. Annual adult sea lamprey spawning monitoring funded by Environment Agency from 2003 through to 2017. Rivers surveyed – Swale, Ure, Nidd, Wharfe, Swale. NE seeking funding for river lamprey monitoring. Environment Agency may be able to carry out some adult river lamprey monitoring internally in 2011/12.



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Important to know

Reports / Measures / Tools

Report: Management measures analysis and comparison


Management issues

How and by which management measures can tidal amplification be reduced?
How can public acceptance for management actions be increased?
How can the Ecosystem Services Approach be used to support management decisions?
How can we assure accessibility to an inland estuarine port without affecting the habitats and safety against flooding?
How can we prevent excessive degradation or loss of tidal marshes?
How does habitat management affect the supply of ecosystem services?
What are the key areas of conflicts or synergies in TIDE estuaries?
What are the restoration opportunities for side branch systems and river banks (e.g. left side branch Weser)?
What factors determine the distribution of suspended sediments in an estuary?
What measures are successful for the dissipation of tidal energy?
What monitoring is required to support and assess management decisions?
What parameters should be used to define and evaluate measure targets?
What tool is available to help manage multiple users of a resource in an integrated way (i.e. achieving more holistic management)?
Which aspects do I have to take into account in order to make a measure a success?
Which measures are suitable to achieve specific ecological targets?
Which measures are suitable to achieve specific morphological and hydrological targets?
Which measures are suitable to identify, protect or develop valuable submerged habitats e.g. mussel beds and Sabellaria reefs?
Which measures are suitable to improve the physical characteristics and chemical water quality?
Which measures are suitable to provide ecosystem services and benefits?
Which synergistic effects and conflicts can be expected by planning and implementing a certain measure?
“Working with nature”: What are the opportunities for sediment management in estuaries?